Almost Everything We Don't Know or Seem to Know, or Think We Know

This website is devoted to providing information, data and analysis on ice ages with new insights and ideas. It is adminstered by Donald Rapp ( with participation by his colleagues Ralph Ellis and Clive Best. At present, this is just a "placeholder" to be updated soon. Comments on this website can be sent to

Basic introduction to ice ages.

Very brief summary of what we know and what we don't know.

Modeling Ice Ages. Link here
Imagine almost all of Canada,and NorthernEurope covered by gigantic ice sheets up to two miles thick, amassing so much H2O that the oceans are more than 300 feetlower.
The ice extends as far as the eye can see. At the boundary,glaciers extendinto the surounding area.
The North American ice sheets grew together into almost a single mass
Global ice volume rose and fell with the passage of time as ice ages grew and dissipated-Solar irradiance is believed to be a major factor
In more recent times, the ice ages are more extensive, and the combination of solar irradiation plus dust deposition is theorized to be a major factor